Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Heutagogy: A Continuum of Perspectives for Community Music Practice with Adults
Prof. Dr. Don D. Coffman, University of Miami
Andragogy refers to the teaching of adults and is used by some educators in contrast to pedagogy. The English word pedagogy (from the Greek paidagôgia, meaning child-leading) has often been applied to instructional practices irrespective of age and not limited to teaching children, while the less familiar andragogy (literally, man-leading) has been reserved for adult learning. For this presentation andragogy will be treated as a set of beliefs about adult learners with principles for instruction, and the central theme is that the tenets of andragogy are congruent with community music practice and apply to learners across the lifespan.
Use of the term andragogy varies around the globe. It can be a label for adult education and continuing education practices. It can be regarded as an academic discipline, the scholarly study of adult learning, and therefore distinct from practice. Jost Reischmann defines andragogy as “the science of the lifelong and lifewide education/learning of adults” (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2012, p. 343). For Reischmann, lifewide learning encompasses intentional learning and non-intentional learning. Intentional learning can be institutionalized adult education (other-directed) or autodidactic (self-directed). Non-intentional learning can occur through aging, by accident, and from planned experiences, such as travel, where learning per se is not the primary goal. Both types of learning can inform each other.
The first use of the word andragogy can be traced to Alexander Kapp, a German secondary school teacher, who in 1833 published a book on the educational ideas of the Greek philosopher Plato. Kapp contrasted Pädagogik and Andragogik, a term which he apparently coined or borrowed, because Plato did not use the term andragôgia. Kapp was interested in adults’ self-improvement and character formation. However, Johann Herbart, who opposed the education of adults, criticized Kapp’s ideas. Herbart believed that such efforts encouraged learner dependence rather than pursuing self-education, and the term was little used until the first decades of the twentieth century when German educators began theorizing about adult education. During the 1950s, the term began to appear more frequently throughout Europe, varyingly linked to descriptions of adult education practices and to reflections about teaching. In a few European universities andragogy became an academic field of study, like psychology and sociology (Van Gent, 1996, pp. 114-116).
Andragogy was first introduced in the United States in 1927 in Martha Anderson and Eduard Lindeman’s, Education through Experience, which was based on their study of methods of the Academy of Labor in Frankfurt, Germany. Once again, the term andragogy was not widely adopted, but Lindeman’s The Meaning of Education (1926) is considered a seminal work in the field of adult education. For Lindeman, adult education emphasizes learner experience and interpersonal exchange of experience through discussion and learning groups instead of lectures and mass teaching. It is lifelong, nonvocational, and concerned with situations rather than subjects per se. He views adult education as a cooperative venture in non-authoritarian, informal learning the chief purpose of which is to discover the meaning of experience; a quest of the mind which digs down to the roots of the preconceptions which formulate our conduct; a technique of learning for adults which makes education coterminous with life, and hence elevates living itself to the level of an experiment. (Lindeman, 1925, p. 3, as cited in Brookfield, 19*84, pp. 187-188)
These views of adult education subsequently influenced the development of andragogy in the United States, where it is most commonly associated with the writings of Malcolm Knowles and is most often regarded as a specific approach. Knowles, influenced by Lindeman and humanist psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, had been writing about adult education long before he was introduced to the term by the Yugoslavian educator Dusan Savicevic in 1966 (Sopher, 2003). He subsequently published The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy (1970) to emphasis his belief that teaching adults differed from teaching children. Knowles’ concept of andragogy was built upon viewing: (1) learners as self-directed and autonomous and (2) teachers as facilitators rather than transmitters of knowledge. This presentation discusses how andragogy principles are compatible with community music beliefs and practices. Community music practice developed in reaction to educational practice, and a discussion of educational principles may seem out of place in a handbook on community music. Theories of education are typically teacher-centered and theories of learning are learner-centered. Andragogy, according to Knowles, is the “art and science of helping adults learn.” (Knowles et al., 2012, p. 59) In blending “helping” and “learning” Knowles has created some confusion and garnered criticism, yet this conflation perhaps embodies the challenges in understanding the complexity of adult learning. Engaging in musical behaviors often involves some form of learning, and so this chapter briefly (1) reviews the theoretical framework espoused by Knowles to clarify common ground for facilitating adult learning in community music practice, (2) presents some methodological principles, and (3) provides an example.
ReferencesAnderson, M. L. & Lindeman, E. C. (1927). Education through experience. New York: Workers Education Bureau.
Brookfield, S. D. (1986). Understanding and facilitating adult learning: A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Knowles, M. S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy. New York: Association Press.
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2012). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (7th ed.). New York: Routledge.
Lindeman, E. C. (1926). The meaning of adult education. New York: New Republic.
Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.
Sopher, M. J. (2003). An historical biography of Malcolm S. Knowles: The remaking of an adult educator (Ph.D.). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. (305296879).
Van Gent, B. (1996). Andragogy. In A. C. Tuijman (Ed.), International encyclopedia of adult education and training (2nd ed., pp. 114-117). New York: Elsevier Science.
BiographyProf. Dr. Don D. Coffman, Professor für Musikpädagogik, ist Leiter des Fachbereichs Musikpädagogik und Musiktherapie an der Frost School of Music der University of Miami sowie emeritierter Professor an der University of Iowa, an der er 24 Jahre gelehrt hat. Er war Vorsitzender der Community Music Activity Commission (CMA) der International Society for Music Education (ISME), und er ist Mitherausgeber des International Journal of Community Music. Eine seiner Leidenschaften ist es, mit „„chronologically gifted“ (A. d. Ü.: altersbedingt begabten) Erwachsenen Blasorchester-Musik zu machen. Er hat seinen Bachelor of Music Education an der University of Kansas gemacht, wo er auch promoviert hat; seinen Master of Music Education hat er an der Wichita State